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The Diabetes :

Diabetes is a chronic condition occurs when glucose stays accumulating and circulating in the blood (hyperglycemia) and blood glucose level increased above the normal range. 

Diabetes (hyperglycemia) condition occurs when the body cannot produce enough or effectively use insulin, Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows glucose from food to enter the body’s cells where it is converted into energy needed by muscles and tissues to function. As a result, a person with diabetes does not absorb glucose properly, and glucose accumulated in the blood damaging tissues over time. 

A normal fasting blood glucose target range for an individual without diabetes is 70-100 mg/dL, and 2 hours after meals less than 140 mg/dL, but for diabetic patients, the American Diabetes Association recommends a fasting plasma glucose level of 70–130 mg/dL and 2 hours after meals should be less than 180 mg/dL.

Types of Diabetes:

Type 1 diabetes: is caused by an auto-immune reaction, where the body's defense system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. As a result, the body can no longer produce the insulin it needs, so the treatment of type 1 diabetes mainly depended on insulin therapy treatment, it usually occurs in children or young adults.

Type 2 diabetes: In type 2 diabetes, the body is able to produce insulin but it is either not sufficient or the body is not responding to its effects, leading to a build-up of glucose in the blood. It usually occurs in adults, but is increasingly seen in children and adolescents due to obesity, treatment of type 2 diabetes usually require oral medication of hypoglycemic agent, a healthy diet, improvement of lifestyle and increased physical activity, but may be insulin therapy will be prescribed also for some conditions.

Secondary Diabetes: Gestational diabetes mellitus which is often disappeared after childbirth in most cases.


Important risk factors which develop Diabetes:

  • Obesity.
  • Hereditary Factors (family history of diabetes).
  • Some other diseases risk factors which can affect.
  • Poor Nutrition.
  • Poor or un practicing of physical activity.
  • Using of some medications such as steroids.
  • Psychological Stress.

Diabetes Short term complications (Acute complications):

  1. Sever Hyperglycemia:

Consistently high blood glucose levels can lead to some of acute symptoms such as:

  • Frequent Urination.
  • Abnormal thirst and dry mouth.
  • Severe Abdominal Pain.
  • Loss of Appetite.
  • Nausea – sometimes vomiting.
  • Difficult Breathing.
  • Loss of Consciousness, Coma (DKA Coma).
  1. Sever Hypoglycemia:

Meaning sever low blood glucose level less than the normal required which can lead to some of acute symptoms such as:

  • Sweating, Feeling shaky and going pale
  • Headache & Blurred vision
  • Tachycardia
  • Hunger, tiredness
  • Nervous & Lack of concentration
  • Change personality’ attitude / behavior & moody
  • Loss of Consciousness, Coma (Hypoglycemic Coma)

Diabetes complications (Long term complications):

  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Diabetic Nephropathy
  • Atherosclerosis & Cardiovascular Diseases
  • Rrecurrent Skin Infection
  • Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy
  • Sexual Impotence (Erectile Dysfunction)

Diabetes Treatment:

  • Medical treatment which includes:
  • Medications (Oral Hypoglycemic Agents): which are used orally (per mouth) to help and stimulate the pancreas to produce enough insulin or promote and improve the insulin functions.
  • Insulin Injections Therapy: insulin is very important for patients who are depended in insulin injections in their treatment of diabetes because it is required by the cells of the body in order for them to remove and use glucose from the blood. From glucose the cells produce the energy that they need to carry out their functions and body daily activities.
  • Non Medical treatment which includes:
  • Nutritional Therapy.
  • Physical Therapy (Exercises).
  • Patient Health Education & Awarenes.


Principals of Diabetes Management

  1. Regular receiving of medical treatment.
  2. Maintaining Healthy food and Diet.
  3. Avoiding Psychological Stress.
  4. Regular practicing Exercises.